Friday, August 31, 2012

Sesquicentennial Stories: The Promise of UK #130

Broom brigades were women’s organizations that spread throughout the United States during the 1880s. Mark Twain observed in his 1883 book Life on the Mississippi that “in the West and South they have a new institution—the Broom Brigade. It is composed of young ladies who dress in a uniform costume, and go through the infantry drill, with broom in place of musket.” He described the broom brigade of New Orleans: “I saw them go through their complex manual with grace, spirit, and admirable precision. I saw them do everything which a human being can possibly do with a broom, except sweep.”

The members of the 1888 Broom Brigade from left to right: unidentified woman; Minnie Moore (later a school teacher);  Mrs. Ernest Cassity (Minnie’s sister); Sally Belle Baker; Mayme Combs; Elmer Allen; Kate Baker; Hattie Warner; Annie Baker, and Sallie Hornbrook. On the steps are: Mary Lou Baker; Vergie Hearne; and Joe Hearne.  The Broom Brigade would drill with brooms as the cadets did with guns. In the post-Civil War era, military drill was a popular form of exercise, and judged drill competitions between rival college battalions was entertainment. It is speculated that in many broom brigades across the country, that it wasn’t the chance to play with guns that inspired the coeds as much as to get some exercise – and to be able to do the same thing that men were doing.

In an ad for The Broom Drill, Broom Brigade Tactics, for Exhibitions, Roller Rinks, Social Clubs and Church Entertainments it is described as the most “novel, attractive and  entertaining exhibition of graceful military movements, performed by young ladies….Easy to learn, and a profitable exercise.” 

Both domestic in nature, in their choice of using brooms, but also an expression of equality the broom brigades were an indication of the changing role of women.

Monday, August 27, 2012

Sesquicentennial Stories: The Promise of UK #131

I had a little bird,
Its name was Enza.
I opened the window,
And in-flu-enza.

(from a jump-rope song sung by children in 1918)

Navy sailors leaving for furlough during flu epidemic, Louis Edward Nollau F series photographic print collection, University Archives

As UK students returned to classes in the fall of 1918, the “Great War” (WWI) was winding down and the world was looking forward to the possibility of peace. Focused on larger issues, Americans were generally unconcerned about reports of “Spanish flu” outbreaks in military camps earlier that year, but by September the increase in cases brought it to the forefront of the country’s attention. As military men moved across the country, going to or returning from war, they carried the disease with them. October saw the most deaths from influenza at more than 200,000 in the U.S.

Nurses and medical officers at makeshift gymnasium hospital, Louis Edward Nollau photographic print collection, University Archives
Although Louisville had reported thousands of cases, Lexington thought itself spared until the first week of October. At this time, troops were quartered at Camp Buell on the UK campus and the flu swept through the barracks. Classes were interrupted from October 11 until November 3 and many soldiers were granted furlough in an attempt to cut down on the number of cases. 403 cases of influenza were reported on UK’s campus, resulting in eight deaths, while the number of cases reported in Fayette County was in the thousands, with more than 51 deaths. During the epidemic, the gymnasium was converted into a hospital staffed by Red Cross nurses. Some students contracted the flu after the ban was lifted, such as Margaret Settle, who reported that she “took the flu” over Thanksgiving break and “didn’t get back to school until Jan. 4, 1919.”
Convalescents playing cards at gymnasium hospital, Louis Edward Nollau F series photographic print collection, University Archives 
The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 killed more people than died in WWI, an estimated 20-50 million in all, somewhat dulling the celebration of the Armistice on November 11, 1918.